A community-academic partnership
committed to fostering health 
equity in Detroit since 2000



Antihypertensive Medication Use: Implications for Inequities in Cardiovascular Risk and Opportunities for Intervention. Alana M.W. LeBrón, PhD, Amy J. Schulz, PhD, Graciela Mentz, PhD, Cindy Gamboa, Angela Reyes, MPH. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved (article to be published in 2017).

Does perceived safety influence the effectiveness of a walking-group intervention designed to promote physical activity? Kwarteng, J.L., Schulz, A.J., Mentz, G.B., Israel, B.A. Shanks, T.R., White Perkins, D. American Journal of Health Promotion; March 19, 2017.

Stengthening Community Capacity in Detroit to Influence Policy Change for Health Equity. Coombe C., Israel B., Reyes A., Clement J., Grant S., Lichtenstein R., Schulz A., Smith S. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 2017. 23(2).


Development of a mixed methods investigation of process and outcomes of community based participatory research. Lucero, J, Wallerstein, N, Duran, B., Alegria, M., Greene-Moton, E., Israel, B., Kastelic, S., Magarati, M., Ostzel, J., Pearson, C., Schulz, A., Villegas, M., White Hat, E.R. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, First Published February 26, 2016.

Do neighborhood sociodemographics modify walking group effectiveness in urban neighborhoods? Schulz, AJ, Mentz, GB, Kwarteng, J, Israel, BA, Gamboa, C, Sand, SL, Gaines, C, Reyes, A, Rowe, Z., Health Promotion Practice, 18 (1):62-74; June 28, 2016.

Everything in Moderation: Interaction Effects among Gender, Race, and Driving Reduction/Cessation. Vivoda, J., Connell, C.M., Schulz, A.J., Grengs, J., Heeringa, S., International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics (Accepted in 2016).

How much are built environments changing, and where?: Patterns of change by neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics across seven US metropolitan areas. Hirsch, J. A., Grengs, J., Schulz, A., Adar, S. D., Rodriguez, D. A., Brines, S. J., & Roux, A. V. D. Social Science & Medicine, September 23, 2016 (online); November 2016 (journal), 169, 97-105.

Local Actors' Frames of the Role of Living Conditions in Shaping Hypertension Risk and Disparities in a Colombian Municipality. Journal of Urban Health, 93(2), 345-363.Lucumi, D.I., Schulz, A.J., Israel, B.A., (2016).

Longitudinal Associations Between Neighborhood Observed and Perceived Food Availability and Body Mass Index in a Multiethnic Urban Sample. Zenk, S.N., Mentz, G., Schulz, A.J., Johnson-Lawrence, V., Gaines, C.R., Health Education & Behavior. July 9, 2016 (online); Feb. 2017 (print)

Neighbourhood poverty, perceived discrimination, and central adiposity: Independent associations in a repeated measures analysis. Journal of Biosocial Science, 1-14. Kwarteng, J.L., Schulz, A.J., Mentz, G. B., Israel, B.A., Shanks, T.R., White Perkins, D., November 2016. 

Race and the Distribution of social and physical environmental risk: A case example from the Detroit Metropolitan Area. Schulz, A.J., Mentz, G.B., Sampson, N., *Ward, M., Anderson, R., DeMajo, R., Israel, B.A., Lewis, T., Wilkins, D., Du Bois Review, October 26, 2016 (Online), 13(2), 285-304.

Social patterning of cardiovascular and metabolic risk in Colombian adults. Lucumi, D. I., LeBrón, A. M., Schulz, A. J., & Mentz, G. Ethnicity & Health, November 10, 2016 (online)

The effect of the environment on driving reduction and cessation using congestion and GIS dataVivoda, J, Connell, C, Grengs, J, Schulz, A.J., Heeringa, S.G., The Gerontologist Volume 55, Issue Suppl 2Pp. 499, October 23, 2015.


Does territoriality modify the relationship between perceived neighborhood challenges and physical activity? A multilevel analysisJohnson-Lawrence, V., Schulz, A.J., Zenk, S.N., Israel, B.A., (2015). Annals of Epidemiology, 2015, 25 107-112.

Effectiveness of a walking group intervention to promote physical activity and cardiovascular health in predominantly non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic urban neighborhoods: Findings from the Walk Your Heart to Health Intervention. Schulz, A.J., Israel, B.A., Mentz, G.B., Bernal, C., Caver, D., DeMajo, R., Diaz, G., Gamboa, C., Gaines, C., Hosten, B., Opperman, A., Reyes, A.G., Rowe, Z., Sand, S.L., Woods, S. Health Education & Behavior, June 2015: 42(3): 380-392.

John Henryism, Socioeconomic Position, and Blood Pressure in a Multi-ethnic Urban Community.
LeBron AM, Schulz AJ, Mentz G, White Perkins D. Ethnicity & Disease. 2015 Winter; 25(1):24-30. PMCID: PMC4385581.

Leader behaviors, group cohesion, and participation in a walking group program. Izumi BT, Schulz AJ, Mentz G, Israel BA, Sand SL, Reyes A.G., Hoston B., Richardson D., Gamboa C, Rowe Z, Diaz G. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2015 Jul, 49(1): 41-9. PMCID: PMC4476063.

Neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage and fruit and vegetable consumption: a seven countries comparison. Ball, K, Lamb, KE, Costa, C, Cutumisu, Ni, Ellaway, A, Kamphuis, CBM, Mentz, G, Pearce, J, Santana, P, Santos, R, Schulz, AJ, Spence, JC, Thronton, LE, van Lenthe, FJ, Zenk, SN.  International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. May 22, 2015 (online)

Race-Ethnicity, Poverty, Urban Stressors, and Telomere Length in a Detroit Community-based Sample. Geronimus, A.T., Pearson, J.A., Linnenbringer, E., Schulz, A.J., Reyes, A.G., Epel, E.S., Lin, J., Blackburn, E.H. Journal of Health & Social Behavior. April 30, 2015.

The relationship of the built environment to health related behaviors and health outcomes in elderly community residents in a middle-income country.  Journal of Public Health Research, Blay, S., Schulz, A.J., Mentz, G.B.  July 16, 2015.


Associations between observed neighborhood characteristics and physical activity: findings from a multiethnic urban community.
Kwarteng JL, Schulz AJ, Mentz GB, Zenk SN, Opperman AA. Journal of Public Health (Oxford). 2014 Sep; 36(3): 358-67. PMID: 24159053. PMCID: PMC4181423

Designing Healthy Neighborhoods: Contributions of the Built Environment to Physical Activity in Detroit. Wineman JD, Marans RW, Schulz AJ, van der Westhuizen DL, Mentz GB, Max P. Journal of Planning Education and Research. 2014 June; 34(2): 180-189

Effects of Particulate Matter and Antioxidant Dietary Intake on Blood Pressure. Schulz AJ, Mentz, GB, Sampson NR, Dvonch JT, Reyes AG, Izumi B. American Journal of Public Health. 2014 Oct 16:e1-e8. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 25320896 PMCID: PMC4400223.

Fine particulate matter air pollution and blood pressure: the modifying role of psychosocial stress. Hicken MT, Dvonch, JT, Schulz AJ, Mentz G, Max P. Environmental Research. 2014 Aug; 133:195-203. PMID: 24968081. PMCID: PMC4137402.

Storytelling in Community Intervention Research: Lessons Learned From the Walk Your Heart to Health Intervention.
LeBron AM, Schulz AJ, Bernal C, Gamboa C, Wright C, Sand S, Valerio M, Caver D. Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action. Winter 2014; 8(4): 455-463. PMCID: PMC4374989. 


Community-Based Participation in Survey Design and Implementation: The Healthy Environments Partnership Survey. Schulz, A, Zenk, S, Kannan, S, Israel, B, Stokes, C. In B.A. Israel, E. Eng, A.J. Schulz, and E.A. Parker (2nd ed.) Methods in Community-Based Participatory Research for Health 2013 (pp. 197-224). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Development, Evolution, and Implementation of a Food Environment Audit for Diverse Neighborhoods.
Zenk, S, Schulz, A, Izumi, B, Sand, S, Lockett, M, Odoms-Young, A. In B.A. Israel, E. Eng, A.J. Schulz, and E.A. Parker (2nd ed.) Methods in Community-Based Participatory Research for Health 2013 (pp. 277-304). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Do observed or perceived characteristics of the neighborhood environment mediate associations between neighborhood poverty and cumulative biological risk? Schulz AJ, Mentz G, Lachance L, Zenk SN, Johnson J, Stokes C, Mandell R. Health Place. 2013 Sep; 24C:147-156. PMID: 24100238. PMCID: PMC3837295

Food shopping behaviors and exposure to discrimination. Zenk, S.N, Schulz, A.J., Israel, B.A., Mentz, G., Miranda, P., Opperman, A., Odoms-Young, A.M. (2013). Public Health Nutrition, 2014 May;17(5):1167-76. PMID: 23534814 PMCID: PMC3701025

Independent and Joint Associations between Multiple Measures of the Built and Social Environment and Physical Activity in a Multi-Ethnic Urban Community. Schulz A, Mentz G, Johnson-Lawrence V, Israel BA, Max P, Zenk SN, Wineman J, Marans RW. Journal of Urban Health. 2013 Oct; 90 (5): 872-87. PMID: 23435574 PMCID: PMC3795195

Introduction to Methods in Community-Based Participatory Research for Health. Israel, B, Eng, E, Schulz, A., Parker, E. In B.A. Israel, E. Eng, A.J. Schulz, and E.A. Parker (2nd ed.) Methods in Community-Based Participatory Research for Health 2013 (pp. 3-38). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Neighborhood food environment role in modifying psychosocial stress-diet relationships. Zenk S, Schulz A, Izumi B, Mentz G, Israel BA, Lockett M. Appetite. 2013 Jun; 65:170-7 PMID: 23415977 PMCID: PMC3622780


Associations between socioeconomic status and allostatic load: effects of neighborhood poverty and tests of mediating pathways.
Schulz AJ, Mentz G, Lachance L, Johnson J, Gaines C, Israel BA. American Journal of Public Health. 2012 Sep; 102(9):1706-14. PMID: 22873478 PMCID: PMC3416053.

Feasibility of using global positioning systems (GPS) with diverse urban adults: before and after data on perceived acceptability, barriers and ease of use. Zenk SN, Schulz AJ, Odoms-Young AM, Wilbur J, Matthews S, Gamboa C, Wegrzyn LR, Hobson S, Stokes C. Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 2012 Sep;9(7):924-34. PMID: 21952361 PMCID: PMC3397153

Hypertension: Development of a prediction model to adjust self-reported hypertension prevalence at the community level. Mentz G, Schulz AJ, Mukherjee B, Ragunathan TE, White-Perkins D, Israel B. BioMed Central Health Services Research. 2012 Sep 11;12:312. PMID: 22967264 PMCID: PMC3483283

Inter-Rater Reliability of the Food Environment Audit for Diverse Neighborhoods (FEAD-N). Izumi BT, Zenk SN, Schulz AJ, Mentz GB, Sand SL, de Majo RF, Wilson C, Odoms-Young A. Journal of Urban Health. 2012 Jun;89(3):486-99. PMID: 22350513 PMCID: PMC3368052

Variations in Hypertension-Related Outcomes Among Blacks, Whites and Hispanics in Two Large Urban Cities and in the United States. Hunte, H., Mentz, G., House, J., Schulz, A., Williams, D., Elliot, M., Morenoff, J., White-Perkins, D. Ethnicity & Disease. 2012 Autumn; (22): 391-937. PMID: 23140067 PMCID: PMC3579519


Activity Space Environment and Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors: A Pilot Study. Zenk SN, Schulz AJ, Matthews SA, Odoms-Young A, Wilbur J, Wegrzyn L, Gibbs K, Braunschweig C, Stokes C. Health & Place. 2011 Sep;17(5):1150-61. PMID: 21696995 PMCID: PMC3224849

Associations between Neighborhood Availability and Individual Consumption of Dark-Green and Orange Vegetables among Ethnically Diverse Adults in Detroit. Izumi BT, Zenk S, Schulz AJ, Mentz GB, Wislon C. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2011; 111(2): 274-279. PMID: 21272702 PMCID:PMC3369621

A Community-Based Participatory Planning Process and Multilevel Intervention Design: Toward Eliminating Cardiovascular Health Inequities. Schulz AJ, Israel BA, Coombe CM, Gaines C, Reyes AG, Rowe Z, Sand SL, Strong LL, Weirs S. Health Promotion Practice. 2011 Nov;12(6):900-11. PMID: 21873580 PMCID: PMC3212629

Context of Entry and Number of Depressive Symptoms in an Older Mexican-Origin Immigrant Population. Miranda, PY, Schulz, AJ, Israel, BA, Gonzalez, HM. J Immigr Minor Hlth. 2011 Aug;13(4):706-12 PMID: 20130999 PMCID: PMC2916036


Exposure to fine particulate matter and acute effects on blood pressure: effect modification by measures of obesity and location. Kannan, S., Dvonch, J.T., Schulz, A., Israel, B., Mentz, G., House, J., Max, P. Reyes, A. J Epidemiol Community Health 2010 Jan:64(1):68-74 PMID: 1983604 PMCID: PMC1565414

The One-Pager: A Practical Policy Advocacy Tool for Translating Community-Based Participatory Research into Action. Izumi BT, Schulz AJ, Israel BA, Reyes AG, Martin J, Lichtenstein R, Wilson C, Sand S. Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education and Action. 2010; 4(2):141-147. PMID:20543489 PMCID: PMC2921614


Acute effects of ambient particulate matter on blood pressure: differential effects across urban communities.
Dvonch, J.T., Kannan, S., Schulz, A., Keeler, G., Mentz, G., House, J., Benjamin, A., Max, P., Bard, R., Brook, R. Hypertentions. 2009 May;53(5):853-859. PMID:19273743 PMCID: PMC3593813

How neighborhood environments contribute to obesity. Zenk SN, Schulz, AJ, Odoms-Young A. Am J Nurs. 2009 July; 109-(7):61-64. PMID:19546647 PMCID: PMC2789291

Interdisciplinary, participatory research to understand urban food environments and dietary behaviors. Zenk SN, Schulz AJ, Odoms-Young A, Lockett M. In Freudenberg N, Saegert, and S Klitzman (editors). Urban Health and Society Interdisciplinary Approaches to Research and Practice, 2009 (45-62) San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Multilevel Correlates of Satisfaction with Neighborhood Availability of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables. Zenk SN, Schulz AJ, Lachance LL, Mentz G, Galea S, Kannan S, Ridella W. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2009 Aug; 38(1):48-59. PMID:19809859 PMCID: PMC2809777

Neighborhood retail food environment and fruit and vegetable intake in a multiethnic urban population.
Zenk, S., Schulz, A., Kannan, S., Lachance, L., Mentz, G., Ridella, W. Am J Health Promot. 2009 Mar-Apr;23(4):255-264 PMID: 19288847 PMCID: PMC3305995

Piloting Interventions within a community-based participatory research framework: Lessons learned from the Healthy Environments Partnership. Strong LL, Schulz AJ, Israel BA, Reyes AG, Rowe Z, Weir SS, Poe C. Progress in Community Health Partnership. 2009 Winter;3(4): 327-334. PMID: 20097994 PMCID: PMC2820110


A community-based participatory approach to personalized computer generated nutrition feedback reports: The Healthy Environments Partnership. Kannan S, Schulz AJ, Israel BA, Arya I, Weir SS, Dvonch JT, Rowe Z, Miller P, Benjamin A. Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action. 2008 Spring; 2(1): 41-53. PMID: 19337572 PMCID: PMC2662605

Do neighborhood economic characteristics, racial composition, and residential stability predict perceptions of stress associated with the physical and social environments? Findings from a multilevel analysis in Detroit. Schulz AJ, Zenk SN, Israel BA, Mentz G, Stokes C, Galea S. Journal of Urban Health. 2008 Sept; 85(5): 642-661. PMID: 18481182 PMCID: PMC2527427

Neighborhood retail food environment and fruit and vegetable intake in a multiethnic urban population. Zenk, S.N., Schulz, A.J., Kannan, S., Lachance, L., Mentz, G., Ridella, W. (2008). Journal of Health Promotion, 29(1), 1-9.

Relational pathways between socioeconomic position and cardiovascular risk in a multiethnic urban population: Complexities and their implications for improving health in economically disadvantaged populationsSchulz AJ, House JS, Israel BA, Mentz G, Dvonch JT, Miranda P, Kannan S, Koch M. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 2008 July; 62(7): 638-646. PMID: 18559448 PMCID: PMC2668209


Inter-rater and test-retest reliability: Methods and results for the Neighborhood Observational Checklist. Zenk SN, Schulz AJ, Mentz G, House JS, Gravlee CC, Miranda P, Miller P, Kannan S. Health & Place. 2007; June 13(2):452-465. PMID:16809060 NIHMS ID: 364106


Discrimination, symptoms of depression and self rated health among African American women in Detroit: Results from a longitudinal analysis. Schulz, A.J., Gravlee, C.C., Williams, D.R., Israel, B.A., Mentz, G., Rowe, Z. (2006). American Journal of Public Health, 96: 1265-1270.

Engaging urban residents in assessing neighborhood environments and their implications for health. Israel BA, Schulz AJ, Estrada-Martinez L, Zenk S, Viruell-Fuentes E, Villarruel AM, Stokes C. Journal of Urban Health. 2006 May; 83(3): 523-539. PMID: 16739052 PMCID: PMC1482932

Fruit and vegetable access differs by community racial composition and socioeconomic position in Detroit, Michigan. Zenk SN, Schulz AJ, Israel BA, James SA, Bao S, Wilson ML. Ethnicity & Disease. 2006 Winter; 16(1): 275-280. PMID: 16599383

Handheld computers for direct observation of the social and physical environment: The Neighborhood Observational Checklist.
Gravlee CC, Zenk S, Woods S, Rowe Z, Schulz AJ. Field Methods. 2006 Nov; 18(4):382-397.

Psychosocial stress and social support as mediators of relationships between income, length of residence and depressive symptoms among African American women on Detroit's eastside. Schulz AJ, Israel BA, Zenk SN, Parker EA, Lichtenstein R, Shellman-Weir S, Klem AB.Social Science and Medicine, 2006 Jan; 62(2): 510-522.


Fruit and vegetable intake in African Americans: Income and store characteristicsZenk,S.N., Schulz, A.J., Hollis-Neely, T., Campbell, R.T., Holmes, N. Watkin, G. Nwankwo, R., Odoms-Young, A. (2005). American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 29(1): 1-9.

Application of CBPR in the design of an observational tool: the neighborhood observational checklist. Zenk S, Schulz AJ, House J, Benjamin A, Kannan S. In B.A. Israel, E. Eng, A.J. Schulz, and E.A. Parker (eds.) Methods in Community-Based Participatory Research for Health 2005 (pp. 167-187). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Community-based participatory approach to survey design and implementation: The Healthy Environments Partnership Survey. Schulz AJ, Zenk, SA, Kannan, S, Israel, BA, Koch, M., Stokes, C. In B.A. Israel, E. Eng, A.J. Schulz, and E.A. Parker (eds.) Methods in Community-Based Participatory Research for Health 2005 (pp. 107-127). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Does territoriality modify the relationship between perceived neighborhood challenges and physical activity? A multilevel analysis.
Johnson-Lawrence V, Schulz AJ, Zenk SN, Israel BA, Rowe Z. Annals of Epidemiology, 2005 Feb; 25(2):107-112. PMCID: PMC4317295.

Fruit and vegetable intake in African Americans income and store characteristics. Zenk, S.N., Schulz, A.J., Hollis-Neely, T., Campbell, R.T., Holmes, N., Watkins, G., Nwankwo, R., Odoms-Young, A. American Jounral of Preventive Medicine. 2005 Jul; 29(1):1-9.

Introduction to methods in community-based participatory research for health. Israel, B, Eng, E, Schulz, A., Parker, E. In B.A. Israel, E. Eng, A.J. Schulz, and E.A. Parker(Eds). Methods in Community-Based Participatory Research for Health 2005 (pp. 3-27). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Neighborhood racial composition, neighborhood poverty, and supermarket accessibility in metropolitan Detroit.
Zenk S, Schulz AJ, Israel BA, James SA, Bao S, Wilson ML. American Journal of Public Health. 2005 Apr; 95(4): 660-7. PMID:15798127 PMCID:PMC1449238

Social and physical environments and disparities in risk for cardiovascular disease: The Healthy Environments Partnership conceptual model. Schulz AJ, Kannan S, Dvonch T, Israel BA, Allen A, James SA, House JS, Lepkowski J. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2005 Dec; 113(12): 1817-1825. PMID:16330371 PMCID: PMC1314928

Use of Community-based participatory research to assess environmental determinants of health: Challenges, facilitators, and implications for universities. Zenk SN, Schulz AJ, Israel BA, House JS, Benjamin A, Kannan S. Metropolitan Universities Journal. 2005; 16(1): 107-125.


Social Determinants of Health: Implications for Environmental Health Promotion. Schulz, AJ, Northridge, ME. Health Education & Behavior, 2004 Aug; 31(4):455-471.


Addressing social determinants of health: Community-based participatory approaches to research and practice. Schulz AJ, Krieger J, Galea S. Health Education & Behavior, 2002 Jun; 29(3): 287-295.


Schulz, A.J., Israel, B.A., Parker, E.A., Lockett, M., Hill, Y., Wills, R. (2001). Community-based participatory research: Integrating research with action to reduce health disparities. Public Health Reports, 116(6): 548-557.

Schulz, A.J., Parker, E.A., Israel, B.A., Fisher, T. (2001). Social context, stressors and disparities in women’s health. Journal of the American Medical Women’s Association, 56: 143-149.

Israel, B.A., Schulz, A.J., Parker, E.A., *Becker, A.B. (2001) Community-based participatory research: Policy recommendations for promoting a partnership approach in health research. Education for Health, 14(2): 182-197.

Parker, E.A., Lichtenstein, R.L., Schulz, A.J., Israel, B.A., Schork, M.A., Steinman, K.J., James, S.A. (2001) Disentangling measures of individual perceptions of community social dynamics: Results of a community survey. Health Education & Behavior, 28(4): 462-486.

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